Segment 2 of S5E7 Good & Bad Nematodes, The Gardening with Joey and Holly Radio show

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The gardening with Joey and Holly Radio Show heard weekly March - Oct
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In segment two Joey and Holly go over how to know if you have a good or bad
nematodes
Often referred to as roundworms, nematodes are not closely related to true worms. They are multicellular insects with smooth, unsegmented bodies. The nematode species that feed on plants are so tiny that you need a microscope to see them. The adults often look long and slender, although some species appear pear-shaped. These plant parasites are not the same roundworms as the filarial nematodes that infect the human body, spread diseases, and wreak havoc on the immune system.
Some nematodes feed on the outer surfaces of a plant while others burrow into the tissue. Soil-dwelling nematodes are the most common culprits, but some species can damage plant roots, stems, foliage, and flowers.
No matter where they feed, these tiny worms can seriously damage to crops with their sharply pointed mouths by puncturing cell walls. The real damage occurs when a nematode injects saliva into a cell from its mouth and then sucks out the cell contents. The plant responds to the parasitic worms with swelling, distorted growth, and dead areas. Nematodes can also carry viruses and bacterial diseases inject them into plants. The feeding wounds they make also provide an easy entrance point for bacteria and fungi.
Beneficial nematodes that enrich the soil may feed on the decaying material, insects, or other nematodes.
Being slender and transparent, they cannot often be seen by the naked eye. Other groups of worms may be confused with nematodes. ... With a few exceptions, if you can see an organism, with the naked eye, it is not a plant-parasitic nematode.
Most nematodes are harmless, but a handful of troublesome species attack the outside surfaces of plants, burrowing into the plant tissue and causing root, stem, folar and even flower damage. Other nematodes live inside the plants for part of their lives, causing damage from the inside out
Are nematodes harmful?
While most of the thousands of nematode species on Earth are not harmful, some cause diseases in humans and other animals or attack and feed on living plants. ... Luckily, there are ways to deter these pesky pests from disrupting your garden soil
Beneficial Nematodes are microscopic, non-segmented roundworms that occur naturally in soil throughout the world. Inside the nematode's gut is the real weapon — beneficial bacteria that when released inside an insect kill it within 24 to 48 hours
ADD good nematodes
The solution can be applied using a watering can, Hose End Sprayer, backpack or Pump Sprayer or through irrigation or misting systems. Mix nematodes into water and gently agitate. Apply when the sun is low on the horizon as the nematodes are photophobic and do not like direct light.
What To Look For for bad nematodes
Typical symptoms of nematode damage can appear above and below the ground in foliage and roots. Foliar symptoms generally appear in the form of stunting of plants, premature wilting, and leaf chlorosis (yellowing). Plants displaying these symptoms generally occur in patches rather than showing across an entire field, following the usual irregular distribution of nematodes in fields.
Under heavy nematode infestation, crop seedlings or transplants may fail to develop, maintaining a stunted condition, or die, causing poor stand development. Under less severe pressure, symptom expression may be delayed until later in the crop season after a number of nematode cycles have been completed. In this case, the above-ground symptoms may not be as readily apparent.
Root symptoms caused by sting or root-knot nematodes can present very noticeable symptoms. Sting nematodes can form a tight mat of short roots that often assume a swollen appearance. New roots are generally killed by heavy infestations of the sting nematode.
Root-knot nematodes are characterized by the swollen areas on the roots called galls. Galls may range from a few swellings on roots to extensive areas covered, which are caused by exposure to multiple and repeated infections.
Beneficial nematodes can be a great alternative to chemical pesticides, and a very effective addition to Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs. However, beneficial nematodes are living organisms and using them for pest control does require accurate information, proper storage and shipping and careful application
1
Remove all vegetation from the area. Wet the soil
, then cover it with two sheets of clear plastic to raise the temperature in the soil
and kill the nematodes. Dig the edges of the plastic about 6 inches into the soil
to keep it in place and hold in the moisture. Place the plastic during the hottest months of the summer, and leave it in place for four to six weeks.
2
Plant cool season crops rather than warm season crops. Nematodes are less active in the cooler months, so there is less chance they will damage plants. Plant nematode-resistant plants all year long to limit damage. Nematode resistance is indicated on the seed or plant label.
3
Amend soil
with plenty of organic matter prior to planting. Till or dig the organic matter several inches into the soil
. The organic matter will help suppress the nematodes and keep them from causing as much damage.
4
Keep contaminated areas of the garden
from spreading. Do not move plants from infested areas into clean areas. Water infested areas separately so the runoff doesn't get into clean areas. Clean gardening tools with alcohol between uses to keep from transferring nematodes on the tools.
5
Water your plants frequently; don't let them dry out. Plants are more susceptible to nematodes if they are stressed from lack of water.
6
Allow the planting bed to lie fallow for one or two seasons. Water the planting area and keep it moist so the nematode eggs will hatch, but keep the planting zone free of weeds and other vegetation. If the nematodes hatch and have nothing to eat, they will die.
7
Remove plants and dig up the roots at the end of each growing season to remove the nematodes' food source. Dispose of the plant matter. Till the soil
after removing the plants to dry the soil
and expose the nematodes to sunlight, which kills them. Till the soil
again every few weeks to dig up more of the nematodes and expose as many as possible before the next planting season.
Beneficial Nematodes hunt down, penetrate, and kill most soil dwelling pests. They will remain effective for about 2 years, but annual applications are recommended. They will also attack over wintering adult insects, pupae, diapausing larvae, and grubs when they are in the soil, bark, or even ground litter.
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