224. Atrial Fibrillation: Assessment of Stroke & Bleeding Risk with Dr. Elaine Hylek


Manage episode 335461213 series 2585945
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CardioNerds (Amit Goyal), Dr. Colin Blumenthal (CardioNerds Academy House Faculty Leader and FIT at the University of Pennsylvania), and Dr. Anjali Wagle (CardioNerds Ambassador and FIT at Johns Hopkins University), discuss the baseline assessment of stroke and bleeding risk in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) with Dr. Elaine Hylek. Dr. Hylek is a professor of medicine at the Boston University School of Medicine and is the Director of the Thrombosis and Anticoagulation Service at Boston Medical Center. Stroke is a potentially devastating and preventable complication of AF. Understanding the balance between stroke and bleeding risk is crucial in determining who should be on anticoagulation. Join us to discuss this topic! In the next episode of the series, we will discuss situational risk assessment in the context of peri-cardioversion, peri-procedural status, triggered atrial fibrillation, and more. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, Pace Wetstein. This CardioNerds Atrial Fibrillation series is a multi-institutional collaboration made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Kelly Arps and Dr. Colin Blumenthal. This series is supported by an educational grant from the Bristol Myers Squibb and Pfizer Alliance. All CardioNerds content is planned, produced, and reviewed solely by CardioNerds. We have collaborated with VCU Health to provide CME. Claim free CME here! Disclosures: Dr. Hylek discloses grant and research support from Medtronic and Janssen, and honoraria and/or consulting fees from Boehringer Ingelheim, and Bayer. Pearls • Notes • References • Guest Profiles • Production Team CardioNerds Atrial Fibrillation PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes - Atrial Fibrillation: Assessment of Stroke & Bleeding Risk The CHA2DS2-VASc should be used to determine stroke risk in all patients. It was updated from the CHADS2 score to better separate patients into high and low risk and a score of 0 has a very low risk of a stroke.Understanding a given model’s derivation is key to application for any risk model. Understanding who was and was not included when a risk score was derived helps determine how to clinically use it. For example, mechanical valves, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, cardiac amyloidosis, and moderate to severe MS were all excluded or poorly represented and should receive AC in AF regardless of CV.The HAS-BLED score should be used to identify modifiable risk factors for bleeding and address them. It is less useful to determine when we should stop AC. Factors that go into the score are dynamic and the intention was to alert the provider of potentially modifiable factors that could be addressed to lower bleeding risk (such as better BP control).Fear the clot. Patients should be on AC unless there is a serious contraindication as embolic strokes can be devastating with a high mortality (~24% mortality at 30 days)“What am I saying by not writing the prescription... I am saying that it’s OK to have an ischemic stroke.” Survey data shows that patients are willing to experience 3.5 GI bleeds on average before 1 stroke, so favoring AC is often a patient centered approach Notes - Atrial Fibrillation: Assessment of Stroke & Bleeding Risk Notes drafted by Dr. Anjali Wagle 1. Why do strokes happen in atrial fibrillation? Why is reducing stroke risk so important? Atrial fibrillation is associated with a significantly increased risk of stroke. The mortality of strokes related to AF have been estimated to be around 25% at 30 days in early studies which included either persistent or permanent AF, though of note, these studied were biased towards larger strokes since the diagnosis was based on physical exam and n...

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