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In this episode we discuss cardiogenic shock due to valvular heart disease. Join Dr. Pranoti Hiremath (Interventional cardiology fellow, Johns Hopkins), Dr. Karan Desai (CN Critical Care Series Co-Chair, Cardiology fellow, University of Maryland), Dr. Yoav Karpenshif (CN Critical Care Series Co-Chair, Chief cardiology fellow, University of Pennsylvania), and Amit Goyal (CardioNerds Co-Founder) as they interview Dr. Paul Cremer (Associate Director of the Cardiac Intensive Care Unit and Associate Director of the Cardiovascular Fellowship at the Cleveland Clinic) in this broad overview of valvular shock. We discuss the nuances in diagnosis, differing presentations and how physical exam, multi-modality imaging, and invasive hemodynamics can inform management. Audio editing by Dr. Gurleen Kaur (Director of the CardioNerds Internship and CardioNerds Academy Fellow). The CardioNerds Cardiac Critical Care Series is a multi-institutional collaboration made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Mark Belkin, Dr. Eunice Dugan, Dr. Karan Desai, and Dr. Yoav Karpenshif. Pearls • Notes • References • Guest Profiles • Production Team CardioNerds Cardiac Critical Care PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes - Cardiogenic Shock and Valvular Heart Disease Shock due to valve disease is the result of a structural abnormality that may be temporized with medical therapy and circulatory support devices. However, it is ultimately best treated with a structural solution in the form of either percutaneous valvular therapies or cardiac surgery.When treating a patient with cardiogenic shock with normal or hyperdynamic ventricular function, we should keep a high index of suspicion for valvular disease. The cardiac output may be reduced due to a stenotic lesion “blocking” forward flow or regurgitant lesion causing backward flow.Acute mitral and aortic regurgitation will typically not manifest as a loud murmur on physical exam. The combination of hypotension and rapid flow of regurgitant blood on an “unprepared” cardiac chamber results in rapid equalization of chamber pressures, shortening the intensity and duration of the murmur. On transthoracic echocardiogram, for instance with acute MR, color Doppler may not show a large turbulent jet, and thus the MR may be underestimated or not appreciated at all.Echocardiography is critical to understand the etiology and severity of valvular shock, and invasive hemodynamics are often needed to guide medical and mechanical interventions.In multi-valve disease with severe aortic stenosis and functional mitral regurgitation, we typically treat the aortic stenosis first, since the mitral regurgitation may improve from the reduction in afterload associated with treating aortic stenosis. Show notes - Cardiogenic Shock and Valvular Heart Disease 1. Shock due to valve disease arises due to a structural problem that may be temporized with medical therapy and circulatory support devices, but is ultimately best treated with a structural solution in the form of either percutaneous valvular therapies or cardiac surgery. Stabilizing therapies for acute mitral regurgitation include afterload reduction with vasodilators, diuresis as needed to reduce pulmonary edema, and mechanical circulatory support including intra-aortic balloon pumps.Therapies for acute aortic regurgitation are typically more limited and include vasopressors such as epinephrine. Bradycardia should be avoided with agents such as dobutamine or temporary pacing to reduce time in diastole. Temporary mechanical circulatory support options are limited in the setting of acute AR, though case reports of techniques such as LAVA ECMO (left atrial venoarterial extracorpeal membr...